Coronary artery disease, also called coronary heart disease, or simply, heart disease, is the No. 1 killer in many countries.
What Is Coronary Artery Disease?
Heart disease is a result of plaque buildup in your coronary arteries — a condition called atherosclerosis — that leads to blockages. The arteries become narrow and rigid, restricting blood flow to the heart. The heart becomes starved of oxygen and the vital nutrients it needs to pump properly.
How Does Coronary Artery Disease Develop?
From a young age, cholesterol-laden plaque can start to deposit in the blood vessel walls. As you get older, the plaque burden builds up, inflaming the blood vessel walls and raising the risk of blood clots and heart attack. Eventually, a narrowed coronary artery may develop new blood vessels that go around the blockage to get blood to the heart. However, during times of increased exertion or stress, the new arteries may not be able to supply enough oxygen-rich blood to the heart muscle.
In some cases, a blood clot may totally block the blood supply to the heart muscle, causing a heart attack. If a blood vessel to the brain is blocked, usually from a blood clot, an ischemic stroke can result. If a blood vessel within the brain bursts, most likely as a result of uncontrolled hypertension (high blood pressure), a hemorrhagic stroke can result.
What Is Ischemia?
Cardiac ischemia occurs when plaque and fatty matter narrow the inside of an artery to a point where it cannot supply enough oxygen-rich blood to meet your heart’s needs. Heart attack can occur – with or without chest pain and other symptoms.
Ischemia is most commonly experienced during:
- Exercise or exertion
- Excitement or stress
- Exposure to cold
Coronary artery disease can progress to a point where ischemia occurs even at rest. And ichemia can occur without any warning signs in anyone with heart disease, although it is more common in people with diabetes.
What Are the Symptoms of Coronary Artery Disease?
The most common symptom of coronary artery disease is angina, or chest pain. Angina can be described as a heaviness, pressure, aching, burning, numbness, fullness, squeezing or painful feeling. It can be mistaken for indigestion or heartburn. Angina is usually felt in the chest, but may also be felt in the left shoulder, arms, neck, back, or jaw.
Other symptoms that can occur with coronary artery disease include:
- Shortness of breath
- Weakness or dizziness